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雅思阅读心理学学术知识分享!

沐訫 发表于2021-06-23

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心理学一直都是一门让人感觉到无比深奥的学科,这样专业化的研究性文章也会时常出现在雅思阅读考试的第三篇当中,近些年来越来越多人的因为社会焦虑问题导致自身心理出现问题,心理学也一直都是门槛高的热门行业,本期就让我们一起去聊一聊雅思阅读心理学学术知识吧!

雅思阅读心理学学术知识分享!图1

一、剑桥雅思阅读心理学知识

剑桥雅思阅读

1、彭聃龄《普通心理学》  裂脑研究


裂脑研究是指切断大脑两半球之间的连结以研究人与动物行为的一种技术。高等动物和人类大脑两半球之间由胼胝体、海马联合、前联合和后联合等联合纤维连结,主要连结部为胼胝体,切断这些联合纤维,左右两半球各自对于对侧半球进行的活动全无所知,形成裂脑。


I hope this book will help bridge that notorious gap that separates the two cultures: the humanities and the sciences, or should I say the right brain (intuitive) and the left brain (analytical, numerical). As the chapters will illustrate, mathematics is not restricted to the analytical and numerical; intuition plays a significant role. 

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2、神经元


瓦尔岱耶提出神经元这一名称,并提出了神经元学说。神经元即神经细胞。它是神经系统的基本结构单位、功能单位和营养单位,是脑的建筑材料。


It is also intriguing that the brain appears to process movement when we see a handwritten letter, as if we are replaying the writer's moment of creation. This has led some to wonder whether Pollock's works feel so dynamic because the brain reconstructs the energetic actions the artist used as he painted. This may be down to our brain's 'mirror neurons', which are known to mimic others' actions. The hypothesis will need to be thoroughly tested, however.

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3、知觉


知觉以感觉作为基础,但它不是个别感觉信息的简单总和,知觉比感觉复杂。知觉是按一定方式来整合个别的感觉信息,形成一定的结构,并根据个体的经验来解释由感觉提供的信息。


Perception is central to iconoclasm. Iconoclasts see things differently to other people. Their brains do not fall into efficiency pitfalls as much as the average personas brain. Iconoclasts, either because they were born that way or through learning, have found ways to work around the perceptual shortcuts that plague most people. Perception is not something that is hardwired into the brain. It is a learned process, which is both a curse and an opportunity for change. The brain faces the fundamental problem of interpreting physical stimuli from the senses. Everything the brain sees, hears, or touches has multiple Interpretations. 

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4、无意注意


无意注意也称为不随意注意,是事先没有预定的目的,也不需要作意志努力的注意。无意注意是人和动物都具有的初级注意。引起无意注意的原因很多,归纳起来可以分为刺激物的特点和人本身所处状态。


Lozanov's instructional technique is based on the evidence that the connections made in the brain through unconscious processing (which he calls non-specific mental reactivity) are more durable than those made through conscious processing. Besides the laboratory evidence for this, we know from our experience that we often remember what we have perceived peripherally, long after we have forgotten what we set out to learn. If we think of a book we studied months or years ago, we will find it easier to recall peripheral details — the colour, the binding, the typeface, the table at the library where we sat while studying it — than the content on which were concentrating.

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裂脑研究是指切断大脑两半球之间的连结以研究人与动物行为的一种技术。高等动物和人类大脑两半球之间由胼胝体、海马联合、前联合和后联合等联合纤维连结,主要连结部为胼胝体,切断这些联合纤维,左右两半球各自对于对侧半球进行的活动全无所知,形成裂脑。


5、生物物理学家克里克


1953年,沃森和克里克发现了DNA双螺旋的结构,开启了分子生物学时代,使遗传的研究深入到分子层次。2003年初,克里克在《自然》杂志上发表论文《意识的框架》,提出意识不是先天就有,而是由大脑中位于「扣带前回」的一小组神经元产生和控制的。


Watson, together with Francis Crick, discovered the structure of DNA, the genetic information carrier of all living organisms. ‘When asked how they had cracked the code ahead of an array of highly accomplished rival investigators, he said something that stunned me. He said he and Crick had succeeded because they were aware that they weren’t the most intelligent of the scientists pursuing the answer. 

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6、达尔文曾发表著作《人类和动物的表情》


情绪的外部表现,通常称之为表情。它是在情绪状态发生时身体各部分的动作量化形式,包括面部表情、姿态表情和语调表情。


As Charles Darwin noted in his book The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals: the young and the old of widely different races, both with man and animals, express the same state of mind by the same movements. Still, up to the mid-20th century most anthropologists believed that the facial expressions were entirely learned and could therefore differ among cultures.

20210522雅思机经 Facial expression


7、分析表明,与低地位个体相比,高地位个体产生更多的主导性笑和更少的顺从性笑。同时,地位较低的人更可能根据自己的权力地位改变他们的笑声;也就是说,新来者在扮演“强有力的”挑逗者角色时,会发出更多的主导性笑声。


Analysis revealed that, as expected, high-status individuals produced more dominant laughs and fewer submissive laughs relative to the low-status individuals. Meanwhile, low-status individuals were more likely to change their laughter based on their position of power; that is, the newcomers produced more dominant laughs when they were in the 'powerful' role of teasers.

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二、总结

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