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雅思写作高段位4种神展开技巧!

沐訫 发表于2021-06-29

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在进行雅思写作的时候我们最常见的问题就是不知道如何展开,俗话说的好,万事开头难,很多时候一篇文章的开头往往是整个内容决定性的东西,实则我们在进行雅思作文创作的时候也是有段位技巧的,那么本期我们就来聊一聊雅思写作高段位4种神展开技巧!

雅思写作高段位4种神展开技巧!图1

一、举例法

在议论文写作中,举例法是最常见的,也是最常用的一种段落展开法。用实例可以使文章的内容更丰富,同时更有说服力。


比如,有这样一个作文题目:Governments should not fund any scientific research whose consequences are unclear.

  

如果你支持题目的观点,可以提出这样的分论点:Being circumspect about research whose objectives are too vague can help us avoid significant opportunity costs.


例:美国的“星球大战”研究计划

 Being circumspect about research whose objectives are too vague can help us avoid significant opportunity costs. Consider the “Star War” defense initiative championed by the then US President Ronald Reagan during the 1980s. In retrospect, this initiative was ill-conceived and largely a waste of taxpayers‘ money —— money that could have been devoted to addressing pressing socio-economic problems of the day, such as AIDS, environmental damage, poverty and drug trafficking. As it turned out, at the end of the “Star War” debacle America was drawn into a quagmire of economic recession and social unrest, to the detriment of the nation at large.


使用例法需要作者积累一定的素材。平时读书的时候,要注意收集一定的共通性(也就是说可以用于很多主题的论证)的同时,有一定的独特性(也就是说没有被滥用)的例子。


二、反证法

反证法的思路是如果不(接受本段段的论证点),会(产生什么样的结果),这样可以更深入地思考问题。


例:Students should always question what they are taught instead of accepting it passively. 我们可以提出这样的分论点:Students in fields such as law and political science should think critically about current legal systems. 学习法律和政治学的学生应该学会质疑当今存在的各种法律法规的正确性。


反证法可以拓展思路:如果他们不这样做,会发生什么,从而提高论证的深度:


 Students in fields such as law and political science should think critically about current legal systems. While law students must learn to appreciate timeless legal doctrines and principles, they should continually question the fairness and justification of current laws. Without such skepticism, our laws would not evolve to reflect changing societal values and to address new legal issues brought by new technologies, fox example AI and self-driving cars.


三、分类法

分类也是段落扩展的常用方法。分类是根据事物的特征进行分类的,许多事物可以分为不同的类别,不同的事物也可以归入同一类。在主题句确定之后,段落的内容有时可以按分类顺序组织和发展。


例如,对于上面的题目,Studentsshouldalwaysquestionwhattheyaretaughtinsteadofacceptingitpassively.可以用分类方法来展开,也就是,对于不同专业领域的学生(如物理、艺术、法律等),质疑精神对他们同样重要:


 The value of skepticism can be illustrated by examples from various fields of study. For students in the field of physics sciences, the ability to question what they are taught is essential. History has seen many physics students, for example Copernicus and Galileo, who queried what they had been taught, thereby paving the way for innovations, invention and discoveries. For art students, it is often bold challenge to established styles and forms, rather than subpar mimicry, that enables them to produce genuinely new art. Even in fields such as law and political science, students must think critically about current legal systems; otherwise, exploitation, tyranny, and prejudice go unchecked.


四、因果法

因果法是论述文章中最常用的方法。因果法用来解释事物发展的原因和结果,可以根据结果分析原因,也可以根据原因推导结果。因果法非常适合用来拓展思维。


如果你的文章写了一半,觉得什么也说不出来,记得多想想原因和结果:是什么导致了现在描述的现象?现在描述的现象会导致什么样的结果?想清楚这两点,文章就思路。


 如果我们持同意态度的话,会得出这样的主论点:Using mobile phones and computers to communicate makes us lose the ability to communicate with each other face to face.


我们可以使用因果法:为什么使用手机和电脑会降低人们的面对面交流能力?导致人们面对面交流能力下降的因素是什么?这些因素会导致什么结果?仔细分析后,不难得出以下两个结论:


1)许多人在使用电脑或手机聊天时很难集中注意力,因为他们会受到大量的信息干扰(如手机推送的新闻和游戏信息等)。)。习惯网络聊天的人注意力会变短,谈话时容易分心,这会阻碍他们在现实生活中的沟通。


2)很多人习惯于在网上聊天中使用各种流行语和缩写,但这些流行语往往很难达到优雅的水平。如果这种习惯被带到现实生活中,会给人留下不好的印象。


 Smart phones and computers could in many ways hinder our face-to-face communication skills. Take conversational behaviour. Heavy users of such electronics often have a short attention span and are more likely to jump from topic to topic when an idea springs to mind. As a consequence, they may become unfocused and sidetracked during offline conversations. Internet slang also does its bit. Today, youngsters who text with abbreviated forms of words tend to speak with the same acronyms and use internet catchphrases heavily. These forms of talking are often construed as flighty and uneducated, from which misunderstandings ensue.


五、组合方法

实际写作中很少使用一种方法。一般来说,反证+举例,因果+距离,分类+反证等,论证效果更好。同时,为了使展开句顺利连贯地写须注意连接词的使用。


  转折关系:while, yet, but, however

  并列关系:and, also, likewise

  让步关系:though, although, despite, in spite of

  递进关系:moreover, what is more, furthermore, in addition, besides


六、总结

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